Category Archives: Keep it flowing

Cities, towns, development, farms, ranches take water from the Truckee River – some years taking nearly its entire flow

Who’s using the Truckee River’s water? Part 1: Truckee Meadows

Many of us know the Truckee River’s largest source is Lake Tahoe and that the river flows to Pyramid Lake – Nevada’s largest natural lake. However, most who live and work in and around the Truckee Meadows have little idea how much water is taken out of the river before the water can make its way to Pyramid Lake. As we approach the end of the summer, river flow through Reno is diminishing, and upstream reservoirs hold water in large amounts following the heavy rain and snow from the winter of 2016-17 and the almost average year in 2017-18.  The Reno-Sparks area – the Truckee Meadows and surrounding valleys – divert and use Truckee River water, of course. What isn’t obvious is where that water for residential and commercial and agricultural users actually goes. Is some of it returned to the river? How much water remains in the river after the water is diverted? Who treats the waste water and what happens to it? Let’s start with a big-picture understanding of who takes water out of the Truckee River in the Reno-Sparks area, how it is used, and how some of it is treated.

TMWA Municipal and Industrial Use

One of the larger diversions on the Truckee River is by the Truckee Meadows Water Authority (TMWA) which supplies municipal and industrial (M&I) water to nearly all of the Truckee Meadows. TMWA directly diverts water from the Truckee River at Chalk Bluff and at Glendale. Truckee River water also heads to Stead and Lemon Valley. Not all the water used for TMWA customers comes from the river directly, however. While most of the water TMWA distributes to its customers comes from the Truckee River, TMWA pumps water from wells or tributaries in the river’s watershed (like wells in Washoe Valley or the Callahan Ranch or tributaries like White’s Creek), or from wells located within the Truckee Meadows.

TMWA Chalk Bluff Truckee River Diversion and Treatment Facility

The Stead and Lemon Valley areas use local groundwater and imported groundwater pumped from Fish Springs Ranch wells 40 miles north along the Nevada/California border. This groundwater is “blended” with Truckee River water that was pumped uphill 500 ft in elevation to the Stead area.

A significant portion of the M&I water TMWA diverts from the Truckee River (and pumps from wells within the Truckee Meadows) is used for irrigating residential lawns and gardens, golf courses, and other landscapes throughout the region. With global warming (and some small amount of urban induced heating as well),  the Truckee Meadows and the west in general is hotter than in the past requiring a longer irrigation season and more water to keep plants healthy during long hot spells and warmer days. The Truckee Meadows set a record already this summer with 19 days of 100º F or higher – and summer heat isn’t over yet.

Water that goes to outdoor irrigation is mostly consumed. That is, it is lost through evapotranspiration by grasses, plants, and trees and does not return to the river.  A certain amount of water used outdoors runs off into the streets and gutters due to improper irrigation system maintenance or design or from car washing and other water applied to hard surfaces. This runoff water heads down the gutters and can pick up considerable contamination before returning to the River through the storm drain system.

Gardens like this one use far less water and require less maintenace than a lawn

As a result of the warming climate, landscapes require a longer irrigation season in the Truckee Meadows.  The growing season now – defined as the number of days with non-freezing temperatures – has steadily increased since the 1950’s. Additionally, when daytime temperatures stay above 90º for weeks, vegetation often requires more water to remain healthy. And, it isn’t unusual to see sprinklers running even during November or March because of warm temperatures and lack of adequate precipitation. Ultimately, conserving water in our garden landscapes is essential in order to protect flows of the Truckee River and reduce the cost of supplying the region with water.

Residential water running into gutter in August 2018

(The Truckee Meadows is mostly a high desert and receives only about 7″ of rainfall each year so most lawns, trees, and plants favored for landscapes wouldn’t survive without irrigation. Outdoor landscapes that use plants adapted to our dry climate save water and, when replacing lawns, can reduce yard maintenance as well.)

 

 

Agricultural Use also includes Parks and Public Spaces

There are diversions from the Truckee River into ditches built in the 19th and early 20th century by and for agricultural users in the Truckee Meadows (Steamboat, Coldron, Highland, Orr, Last Chance, Pioneer, Cochran, and Lake ditches.) The entire region was dominated by ranches then. After WWII change came to the ranch lands throughout the Truckee Meadows and, over the decades, urban and suburban development replaced the ranches. As most of the Truckee Meadows changed from ranches and farms to housing developments, the former agricultural water rights converted to M&I water rights now controlled by TMWA (previously by the Sierra Pacific Power Company). As the remaining agricultural land within the Truckee Meadows gradually disappears under housing, shopping malls, and roads, M&I usage controlled by TMWA will increasingly dominate.

Some Washoe County and Reno and Sparks City Parks and Golf Courses receive water directly from the ditches that originally supplied water to the ranches. For example, Rancho San Rafael receives water from the Highland Ditch which is supplied by a diversion from the river many miles away in Verdi.

Rancho San Rafael Park receives water from the Highland Ditch (seen on left side of this google image)

Likewise, Virginia Lake Park receives water from the Cochran Ditch which is supplied by water diverted from the river in downtown Reno. Reno’s Paradise Park also receives water from area ditches, the Mountain View Cemetery receives water from the Highland Ditch, and the Orr Ditch supplies water for UNR’s Manzanita Lake. UNR’s Main Station Farm east of McCarran Blvd. receives water from the Pioneer ditch which diverts water from the river near the Grand Sierra Hotel-Casino.  Water diverted from the Truckee River into ditches that isn’t consumed by the grasses, plants and trees flows through return canals, creeks, and sloughs and eventually returns to the river or enters the groundwater.

The Truckee Meadows still has a relatively high groundwater table especially in the eastern part of the valley. The high groundwater table reveals itself at the Sparks Marina Park.

Sparks Marina is filled by groundwater. Pumps shown in the lower center remove water to the river.

This former gravel pit is now a large lake because groundwater “flows” into it continually filling it to the level of the groundwater table. However, in order to keep the lake from rising too high due to the high groundwater level (and causing problems for the surrounding houses and businesses), pumps remove water from the man-made lake to the nearby Truckee River.

Treated Waste Water Returns to the Truckee River

Most of the water used indoors by Truckee Meadows residences and businesses for cooking, cleaning, and sanitation (think toilets and showers here) goes via sewer pipes to the Truckee Meadows Regional Water Reclamation Facility (TMWRF) located on the east side of the valley at Vista where Steamboat Creek enters the Truckee River. After treatment at the TMWRF  most of the water is released to the Truckee River (about 95% according to a 2005 report on waste water facilities in Washoe County.)

Some of the reclaimed water from TMWRF is used for irrigation of Golf Courses, the University Farm, certain parks and recreation facilities and other places where use of reclaimed water is deemed acceptable.

Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility

However, TMWRF is not the only waste water reclamation facility in the Truckee Meadows or the wider Washoe County. Waste water at Stead does not return to the Truckee River, but is released from treatment plants there that ends up in Swan Lake where it, along with normal precipitation, usually evaporates. Water for Swan Lake Nature Area provides habitat for the wetland park that rises and falls with the seasons and has thousands of birds using it including the area’s namesake Tundra Swans in the fall and winter. (In 2017-18, as the residents around Swan Lake and White Lake found out, there was so much water from natural runoff as well as imported groundwater that flooding was wide spread in low-lying areas as the closed basin filled with water. )

South Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Plant in Huffaker Hills

Likewise, water treated at the South Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility (STMWRF) does not return to the Truckee River. The reclaimed water from this facility is stored in a reservoir and used for irrigation or evaporates from the reservoir. STMWRF treats waste water from residential areas south of Rattlesnake Mountain and up along the Mount Rose Highway. STMWRF’s reclaimed water is used for outdoor irrigation or evaporates from the reservoir used to store the treated water.

Only treated waste water from TMWRF is released to the Truckee River. Treated waste water from the other facilities, which is of lesser quality, is not be returned to the river or allowed to enter the groundwater.Treated waste water, therefore, can be either released to the Truckee River or used for irrigation of parks and other recreation facilities where the water is consumed by the grass, plants or trees through evapotranspiration. A completely separate piped distribution system is required to ship reclaimed water to sites for outdoor irrigation.

TMWRF treats water and has a capacity of nearly 40 million gallons per day (about 44,000 acre-feet per year maximum). The plant treats water to a fairly high standard and the facility also removes nitrogen and phosphorus in addition to contaminants. Nevertheless, the water released by TMWRF is higher in temperature and chemical pollutants than before it was used. Other treatment plants treat water to a lesser level.

Lake Tahoe Warming; Truckee Meadows sees hottest July

Lake Tahoe may be the largest alpine Lake in North America but temperatures here are rising. Increasing temperatures the year-round are seen for both the air and the water according to a report by University of California, Davis Tahoe: State of the Lake 2018. The long-term average daily minimum temperature in the Tahoe Basin rose 4.4ºF over the past 100 years while the average daily maximum temperature rose 2.2ºF. The number of freezing days – that is, the number of days where the temperature remains below 32ºF – has decreased by 30 days in that time. And the annual average water temperature of the Lake – while a more complicated statistic – shows the Lake warming 1.1ºF since 1970, “… bringing it to the warmest value recorded…” – 43.3ºF. The July 2017 surface water temperature of the Lake was the warmest ever recorded at 68.4ºF.

The Sierra Nevada Mountains on the west shore of Lake Tahoe veiled by smoky skies from wildfires.

The Sierra Nevada Mountains on the west shore of Lake Tahoe veiled by smoky skies from wildfires.

The report says that in 2017 “…the monthly air temperatures were higher than the 1910-2017 average…” in 11 out of 12 months. And rising temperatures have implications for the health of the forest as well as the clarity of the Lake’s fabled waters. If CO2 continues to rise, temperatures in the Tahoe Basin could be 7 to 9ºF higher which will increase the “climate water deficit” – with likely negative effects on the entire ecosystem of the forest and lake environment. The report says that such an occurrence is the “subject of ongoing research.”

Truckee Meadows warms up to HOT

For those of us who spent July in Reno, it is no surprise that it was the hottest month ever in Reno exceeding last year’s “hottest ever July” by 1.3ºF. As a Renoite of nearly 7 decades, it is shocking that this July saw average temperatures 6.9 degrees above the 1981-2010 average. The cool summer evenings of the Truckee Meadows are a distant memory with the July 31st tie of the highest low temperature for Reno of 77ºF  . The month was 6.9 degrees above the 1981-2010 average.

NOAA Temperature for Reno July 31, 2018

NOAA Temperature for Reno July 31, 2018 (click)

So just how hot was July 2018 here in Reno?

We had the highest average temperatures of 81.8ºF – a staggering 6.9ºF above the 30 year running average. It set a record for the most days at or over 100ºF – 14.  The high temperature for the 31 days of July 2018 never was below 90ºF – matching the hotness of July … wait for it … 2017!

We often hear about “normal” temperatures when the weatherwoman on TV or Radio talks about being above or below the normal temperature. It is actually defined as the 30 year average calculated every decade. The current “normal” comes from the period 1981 to 2010. In 2021, normal temperatures will be calculated during the period 1991-2020. So all these new hot  temperatures will be part of the “average” and “normal”. In this way, the rising temperatures get smoothed out and don’t seem as out-of-bounds as they would if we used, say, a 50 year average or a 75 year average. Reno’s records date back 125 years, but worldwide, many temperature records are far longer.

… And the warming temperatures are caused by?

Climate change, or global warming, is the result of the the physics of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the upper atmosphere by burning carbon-based fuels – coal and oil and gas. The knowledge of this physics isn’t new; its been known by scientists since the 19th century who said then that it would warm up the earth. Presently, if you search on the internet for “climate change”, you’ll find far more nonsense about a “hoax” than you’ll find actual scientific information which is verified by scientists – who know a thing-or-two – and our own experiences with each passing year.

Just where does the Truckee River’s Water Go? Check back for an update on Truckee River water  – diversions, dams, and development takes a bite!

Hunter Creek cascades into the Truckee River at Mayberry Bridge near Mayberry Park in Reno.

Hunter Creek cascades into the Truckee River at Mayberry Bridge near Mayberry Park in Reno in June.

Truckee Meadows Parks Foundation seeks Wetland Restoration Director

The Truckee Meadows Parks Foundation is developing a new program and has sent out the following job description for a Wetland Restoration Program Director:

“Truckee Meadows Parks Foundation supports Reno, Sparks, and Washoe County parks primarily by providing in-park programming, fundraising for park infrastructure upgrades, and opportunities for citizen engagement. The Parks Foundation is an independent, 501 (c) (3), nonprofit organization. In the five years since its founding,  the Parks Foundation has grown to a full-time permanent staff of five individuals overseeing 15 AmeriCorps members who serve one-year terms. Our current programs focus on improving community health and wellness, science education, and developing appreciation for the natural and cultural history found in our local parks. … For questions, call 775-410-1702 or visit www.tmparksfoundation.org for more information.”

Snow drought in an average year of precipitation for Truckee River

NRCS 4-24-2018 - Total Precipitation vs. Snow Water Equivalent for water year to date

The Truckee River watershed saw more rain than snow this year. So, this year appears to continue the trend of at least the last decade as rain replaces snow – especially at lower elevations. The maps show just how significant the effect is as we approach the end of the first month of spring. Many sites in the Truckee River basin (including the Tahoe basin) are reporting 101% of the longterm average for precipitation. The picture is different for snow water equivalent, however. Snow water equivalent (the amount of water in the snow pack) is almost or well below the longterm average for this date for sites at lower elevations. You have to go to the highest elevation sites to see average snow water equivalent conditions.

In the graphic below, the blue dots on the left represent sites where total precipitation is 101% and the white sites represent 100% of the long-term average. On the right the 3 sites (between 6400′-7700′) in red have 0% of snow water left; the orange sites have 50% of snow water left compared to the long-term average. Only the site at Big Meadow (8235′) shows 101% of snow water left and one site at Heavenly Valley (8500′) shows 100% of snow water left – both high elevation sites. Click on the graphic to see full size. Or check out the site yourself here.

NRCS 4-24-2018 - Total Precipitation vs. Snow Water Equivalent for water year to date

NRCS 4-24-2018 – Total Precipitation vs. Snow Water Equivalent for water year to date

If the trend continues as expected, there will be very little snow left to melt in the late spring and early summer. When snow disappears earlier, natural stream flow of tributaries and the Truckee River itself decrease. Less natural stream flow often results in additional releases from reservoirs or increased ground water pumping because of our long, dry summers.  Ultimately, it will negatively affect recreation and fish and wildlife that depend on water in the Truckee River.

One Truckee River Month: May 1 through May 31

One Truckee River kicks off its inaugural OTR Month with river events for each day this May. Activities include river tours, yoga on the river, learning about the river, river and park clean-ups, vendors offering food and more. Below is a schedule of some of the events. The One Truckee River website (onetruckeeriver.org) will have the details so be sure to visit to plan how to join in.